Wild Dogz Australia Insect-Repellent dogwear range is registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for repellency against fleas, ticks, mosquitoes, flies, and sandflies.
Before registering a product, the EPA requires extensive effectiveness data to prove its ability to repel insects. Many species and varieties of insects have been tested, including several that carry dangerous—and even life-threatening—diseases. See further information on insects:
There are more than 2,000 identified species of fleas. One of several common species is Ctenocephalides canis, a dog flea. Brown, hard-bodied and narrow in shape, it measures just 1/16 of an inch long. Fleas do not have wings, but their legs are exceptionally suited for jumping. Both male and female adult fleas suck blood. While fleas cannot lay eggs without feeding on blood, they can live as long as a year without a blood meal. Fleas feed on many different animals including dogs, cats, rabbits, squirrels, rats, mice and people.
Each female flea lays 3 to 18 eggs at a time, which hatch in 1 to 12 days. Usually, the white, worm-like larva goes through its three developmental stages within a week or two—becoming a small cocoon, then a pupa and finally, an adult flea searching for blood. Hot, wet weather is conducive for flea egg-laying, but hot, dry conditions encourage adult fleas to be active.
Loosely deposited flea eggs readily fall off the hairs of an animal. So when an animal is infested, wherever it goes, flea eggs will be left behind. Fleas create a nuisance and health hazard for both animals and people. In addition to the itching and skin problems associated with fleas, they can carry tapeworm. Fleas may also cause severe itching. Certain individuals show greater sensitivity to flea bites; some even develop serious allergic reactions. Historically, fleas have caused great harm to human health, because they can carry diseases such as plague, typhus and tularemia.
There are approximately 850 species of ticks. Blood-feeding parasites, they live all over the world.
Ticks bite into the skin of a host and feed by slowly taking in blood. Their hosts are usually rodents and other small animals, but they also prey upon larger animals such as dogs, horses and people.
Ticks require high humidity to survive, and usually live in wooded, brushy, grassy and shaded areas—often where fallen leaves have accumulated on the ground. They usually prove most active beginning in early spring and remain active through the summer months, but ticks can also survive year-round, and even be active on warm winter days. Some species of ticks can survive for years without feeding.
Exhaled carbon dioxide, heat and movement stimulate “questing” behaviour in ticks. Many species perch on the edges of grass stems or leaves on the ground, waiting for indications of a nearby potential host. Then—in questing position, with front legs extended—they prepare to climb onto a host. Ticks do not fly or jump; the host must come into actual contact with the tick.
The tick’s saliva transmits diseases. Usually, a tick must be attached for several hours for disease to be transmitted. Ticks in the nymphal stage can be so small that they appear almost invisible to the naked eye - yet they can still bite and spread disease.
Paralysis ticks are one of the biggest dangers to dogs, as the toxins bring about respiratory distress and muscle paralysis very quickly – often fatally. Treatment and anti-toxin medication can be expensive and often unsuccessful
Tick prevention proves difficult, but you can discourage infestation by keeping grass mowed, as well as removing dead leaves and brush from your yard. Another effective precaution involves pruning trees so as to allow more sunlight to penetrate to the soil surface and reduce humidity. You will also find insecticides labelled for outdoor tick control; however, they are not very effective in eliminating large numbers of ticks in brushy, heavily wooded areas.
Prevent tick-borne illness through tick-repellent protection, careful regular inspection, as well as the prompt and safe removal of attached ticks.
There are approximately 2,700 species of mosquitoes. Only female mosquitoes bite, because they need blood to reproduce. During the 3-4 week lifetime of a female mosquito, it can produce over 1,000 eggs—which may hatch within 48 hours or, in some species, survive subzero winters.
Mosquitoes flourish in moist, relatively warm surroundings. They breed in damp soil and stagnant water, such as ditches and flood pools; however, gutters, discarded tires and other man-made containers make common breeding sites, as well.
Most adult mosquitoes remain near their breeding area, but the females will travel to find blood meals. Exhaled carbon dioxide attracts the female mosquitoes, as do moisture, colour and movement. According to experts, most biting mosquitoes opt to feed on dogs, horses, cattle, birds or small animals over people. A common allergic reaction to mosquito saliva causes bites to itch and develop the distinctive red bump.
Many species of mosquitoes bite more in early morning and at dusk, but some seek prey all night. Others prove more active during the day, especially in cloudy conditions and moist, shady spots sheltered from wind.
Mosquitoes aren’t just a nuisance. They’re dangerous. Malaria, which is transmitted to people by the bite of infected mosquitoes, is one of the world’s leading causes of death. Infected mosquitoes pass other life-threatening diseases to people, such as West Nile virus - now widespread. They also transmit diseases to animals, including heartworm disease (to dogs and others) & equine encephalitis (horses).
Flies are the only insects with just one set of wings. The Order, known as Diptera, includes gnats, midges, mosquitoes and numerous other species. It is estimated that there may be more than one million species of flies now in existence. They live everywhere on Earth, except at the North and South Poles.
In addition to one pair of fully developed wings, flies have small “hindwings” for maintaining balance. They have hairs all over their bodies with which they taste, smell and feel. They are also equipped with sticky pads on their legs that allow them to cling to and walk on slick vertical surfaces—even upside down. The males and females can prove difficult to tell apart, but the females are usually larger.
Flies have four distinct stages of growth, including egg, larva (maggot), pupa, and adult. They primarily survive on garbage and animal faeces. Larvae feed on decaying meat and faeces. Adult flies feed on any kind of sugary food. They are a nuisance to people, and can spread the parasite that causes dysentery. They also are believed to contribute to the spread of typhoid fever, cholera and many other diseases.
Flies, including mosquitoes and others, can spread serious diseases. Many types of flies can bite your dog.
Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world, sandflies (phlebotomine) are biting, blood-sucking flies with densely hairy wings that give them a moth-like appearance. They are small -measuring only about one-third the size of most mosquitoes. About 70 of the approximately 700 known species of sandflies are known to transmit diseases to people, including the potentially fatal parasitic disease leishmaniasis which has been detected in dogs in Australia & around the world and the virus known as sandfly fever. The name “sandfly” is sometimes used for other small biting flies, as well. Noiseless fliers, sandflies prove most active at night, but will bite during the day if disturbed. These tiny insects can cause extreme itching and irritation to your dog. They are found in a wide range of habitats.